Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति / Brihaspati) is an Indian name, and refers to different mythical figures depending on the age of the text.
In Ancient Hindu literature, Brihaspati (बृहस्पति /Bṛhaspati) is a Vedic era (वैदिक / 1500 - 500 BCE) sage who counsels the Gods, while in some Medieval texts the word refers to the largest planet, Jupiter.
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति / Brihaspati)
appears in the Rigveda (pre-1000 BCE), such as in the dedications to
him in the hymn 50 of Book 4.
- The Rigveda (ऋग्वेद) is an Ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit (वैदिक संस्कृत) Hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
It is one of the four sacred canonical texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas (वेद).
- The four sacred canonical texts of Hinduism are called Śruti (श्रुति).
- Vedas (वेद / "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in Ancient India.
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति / Brihaspati)
is described as a sage born from the first great light, the one who
drove away darkness.
He is bright and pure, and carries a special bow whose string is Rta (ऋत / "order, rule, truth") or "cosmic order" (basis of धर्म, Dharma).
His knowledge and character is revered, and he is considered Guru (गुरु, teacher) by all the Devas (देव).
- Devas (देव / "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence") are Male Deities in Hinduism.
In the Vedic (वैदिक) Literature (1500 - 500 BCE) and other ancient texts, sage Bṛhaspati
(बृहस्पति / Brihaspati)
is also called by other names such as Bramanaspati (ब्रामनास्पति),
Purohita (पुरोहित), Angirasa (एंजिरासा / "Son of Angiras") and Vyasa
Sometimes, he is identified with God Agni (अग्नि / "Fire").
His wife is Tara (तारा / "the Goddess who personifies the stars in the sky").
In the Mahabharata (महाभारतम्), the son of Brihaspati (बृहस्पति /Bṛhaspati) named Bharadvaja (भारद्वाज), is the counsellor of the Pandavas (पाण्डव).
- Mahabharata (महाभारतम्, Mahābhārata) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of Ancient India (originated: 8th and 9th Centuries BCE / dated: early Gupta period, c. 4th century CE), the other being the Ramayana (रामायणम्, Rāmāyaṇam).
Mahabharata (महाभारतम्, Mahābhārata) narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War (कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध / 5561 - c. 950 BCE) and the fates of the Kaurava (कौरव) and the Pāṇḍava (पाण्डव) Princes, and their succession.
Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata (महाभारतम्, Mahābhārata) is attributed to Vyāsa (व्यास / "Compiler") or Veda Vyāsa (वेदव्यास, veda-vyāsa / "the one who classified the Vedas") or Krishna Dvaipāyana (कृष्ण पीयाना / referring to his dark complexion and birthplace).
Vyāsa (व्यास) is considered to be one of the seven Chiranjivins (चिरञ्जीवि / long-lived or immortals), who are still in existence according to Hindu tradition.
- Pandavas (पाण्डव) were the five acknowledged sons of Pandu (पाण्डु), King of Hastinapur (हस्तिनापुर) by his two wives: Kunti (कुन्ती) and Madri (माद्री), who was the princess of Madra (मद्रा).
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति / Brihaspati) as a planet appears in various Hindu
astronomical texts in Sanskrit (संस्कृत), such as:
- Aryabhatiya (आर्यभटीय, 5th Century) by the major mathematician-astronomer from the classical age of Indian Mathematics and Indian Astronomy, Aryabhata (आर्यभट)
- Romaka (रोमाका, 6th Century) by the astronomer, Latadeva (लतादेव), based in Byzantine Astronomy
- Pancasiddhantika (पैनकासिधांटिका, 6th Century) by the polymath astronomer, Varahamihira (वराहमिहिर)
- Khandakhadyaka (खण्डखाद्यक, 665 AD) by the mathematician and astronomer, Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त)
- Sisyadhivrddida (सिसियादहिर्डिडा, 8th Century) by the mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, Lalla (लल्ल)
These texts present Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति / Brihaspati) as one of the planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion.
Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta (सूर्यसिद्धान्त), dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th Century, present their chapters on various planets with Deity Mythologies.
In Medieval Mythologies particularly those associated with Hindu Astrology, Brihaspati (बृहस्पति /Bṛhaspati) has a second meaning and refers to Jupiter (The Ruler of the Gods / God of sky and thunder).
The zodiac and naming system of Hindu Astrology (हिंदू ज्योतिष), including Brihaspati (बृहस्पति /Bṛhaspati) as Jupiter, likely developed in the Centuries after the arrival of Greek Astrology with Alexander the Great, their zodiac signs being nearly identical.
Brihaspati (बृहस्पति /Bṛhaspati) as Jupiter is part of the Navagrahas (नवग्रह) in Hindu zodiac system (ज्योतिष), considered auspicious and benevolent.
- Navagrahas (नवग्रह) means "Nine Celestial Bodies" in Sanskrit (संस्कृत) and are Nine Astronomical Bodies or Nine Realms or Nine Planets in Hindu and Vedic Astrology (ज्योतिष, Jyotiṣa or Jyotisha / ज्योतिश्या, Jyotishya) as well as Mythical Deities of Hinduism.
- Jyotisha or Jyotishya (ज्योतिष, ज्योतिश्या / "light, heavenly body") is the traditional Hindu system of Astrology, also known as Hindu Astrology (हिंदू ज्योतिष) or Vedic Astrology (वैदिक ज्योतिष).
Brihaspati (बृहस्पति /Bṛhaspati) became the root of the word "Brihaspativara" (बृहस्पतिवार) or Thursday in the Hindu calendar.
The word "Thursday" in the Greco-Roman and other Indo-European calendars is also dedicated to planet Jupiter (God of sky and thunder).