Budha Graha (बुध) is a Sanskrit (संस्कृत) word that connotes the planet Mercury.
Budha (बुध), in Puranic (पौराणिक) Hindu Mythology (4rth Century), is a Deity.
He is also known as: Saumya (सौम्य / "Son of Moon"), Rauhineya (राउहिनिया) and Tunga (तुंगा).
- Puranas (पुराण / "ancient, old") is a vast genre of Indian literature about a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore.
Budha (बुध) appears as a Deity in Indian texts, often as
the son of Soma (सोम) and Tārā (तारा).
The Mythology of Budha (बुध) as a Deity is not consistent in Hindu Puranas (पुराण), and he alternatively is described as the son of Goddess Rohini (रोहिणी) and God Soma (सोम).
One of the earliest mentions of Budha (बुध) as a Celestial Body appears in the Vedic (वैदिक) text, Pancavimsa Brahmana (पंचावमसा ब्राह्मणम्), and it appears in other ancient texts such as the Shatapatha Brahmana (शतापथा ब्राह्मणम्) as well, but not in the context of Astrology.
In the ancient texts, Budha (बुध) is linked to Three Steps of the Hindu God Vishnu (विष्णु).
- Soma (सोम) connotes the Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra) as well as a Medicinal Deity in post-Vedic (पोस्ट-वैदिक) Hindu Mythology.
In Puranic (पौराणिक) Mythology, Soma (सोम) is Moon Deity, but sometimes also used to refer to Vishnu (विष्णु), Shiva (शिव / as सोमनाथाथा, Somanatha), Yama (यम) and Kubera (कुबेर).
- Tārā (तारा / टकरा, Tārakā) is the Hindu Goddess of felicity and sanguineness.
Taraka (टकरा / तारा, Tārā) is also the second consort of Hindu God Brihaspati (बृहस्पति / God of planet Jupiter).
- Rohini (रोहिणी / "the red one") is a name of Aldebaran, also known as Brāhmī (ब्राह्मी).
- The Brahmanas (ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇam) are a collection of Ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas (वेद).
The Vedas (वेद / "Knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in Ancient India.
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit (वैदिक संस्कृत), the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit (संस्कृत) Literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya (अपौरुषेय), which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless".
- Vishnu (विष्णु) is one of the Principal Deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being or Absolute Truth in its Vaishnavism (वैष्णव सम्प्रदाय) tradition.
Vaishnavism (वैष्णव सम्प्रदाय) is one of the major Hindu denominations along with Shaivism (शैव संप्रदाय), Shaktism (शक्तिम), and Smartism (स्मार्त).
It is also called Vishnuism (विष्णुवाद), its followers are called Vaishnavas (वैष्णव) or Vaishnavites (वैष्णवाइट्स), and it considers Vishnu (विष्णु) as the Supreme Lord.
Vishnu (विष्णु) is also the "Preserver" in the Hindu Triad, Trimurti (त्रिमूर्ति) that includes: Brahma (ब्रह्मा / the Creator God in Hinduism) and Shiva (शिव / one of the Principal Deities of Hinduism).
Budha (बुध) as a planet appears
in various Hindu Astronomical texts in Sanskrit (संस्कृत), such as:
- Aryabhatiya (आर्यभटीय, 5th Century) by the major mathematician-astronomer from the classical age of Indian Mathematics and Indian Astronomy, Aryabhata (आर्यभट)
- Romaka (रोमाका, 6th Century) by the astronomer, Latadeva (लतादेव), based in Byzantine Astronomy
- Pancasiddhantika (पैनकासिधांटिका, 6th Century) by the polymath astronomer, Varahamihira (वराहमिहिर)
- Khandakhadyaka (खण्डखाद्यक, 665 AD) by the mathematician and astronomer, Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त)
- Sisyadhivrddida (सिसियादहिर्डिडा, 8th Century) by the mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, Lalla (लल्ल)
These texts present Budha (बुध) as one of the planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion.
Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta (सूर्यसिद्धान्त), dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th Century, present their chapters on various planets with Deity Mythologies.
Budha (बुध) is the root of the
word "Budhavara" (बुधावरा) or Wednesday in the Hindu Calendar.
The word "Wednesday" in the Greco-Roman and other Indo-European Calendars is also dedicated to planet Mercury ("day of Woden or Oden" in Germanic Mythology).
- Odin (ˈoʊdɪn / Óðinn) is a widely revered God in Germanic Mythology.
In Norse Mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, healing, death, royalty, the gallows, knowledge, war, battle, victory, sorcery, poetry, frenzy, and the runic alphabet, and is the husband of the Goddess Frigg (frɪɡ / Frija, Frea, Frige).
In wider Germanic Mythology and Paganism, the God was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, and in Old High German as Wuotan.
(बुध) is part of the Navagraha (नवग्रह) in Hindu Zodiac
system (ज्योतिष, Jyotiṣa), considered benevolent, associated with an agile mind and memory.
The Zodiac and naming system of Hindu Astrology (हिंदू ज्योतिष), with Budha (बुध) as Mercury, likely developed in the Centuries after the arrival of Greek Astrology with Alexander the Great (शानदार अलेक्जेंडर), their Zodiac signs being nearly identical.
- Navagraha (नवग्रह) means "Nine Celestial Bodies" in Sanskrit (संस्कृत) and are Nine Astronomical Bodies or Nine Realms or Nine Planets in Hindu and Vedic Astrology (ज्योतिष, Jyotiṣa or Jyotisha / ज्योतिश्या, Jyotishya) as well as Mythical Deities of Hinduism.
- Jyotisha or Jyotishya (ज्योतिष, ज्योतिश्या / "light, heavenly body") is the traditional Hindu system of Astrology, also known as Hindu Astrology (हिंदू ज्योतिष) or Vedic Astrology (वैदिक ज्योतिष).
Budha's (बुध) iconography is as a benevolent but a minor
male Deity with light yellow coloured body (or green), draped into yellow
clothes, with a chariot made of air and fire, drawn by eight wind horses.
He is also represented holding a scimitar, a club and a shield, riding a winged lion in Bhudhan Temple (भूमिधन मंदिर).
In other illustrations, he rides a lion and has four arms.
- Bhudhan Temple (भूमिधन मंदिर) is a Hindu temple dedicated to the Deity Shiva (शिव).
It is located in Thiruvenkadu (थिरुवेनकाडू), a village in Nagapattinam (नागपट्टिनम) district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu (तमिलनाडु).
Budha (बुध) is not etymologically, mythologically or otherwise related to Buddha (बुद्ध), the founder of Buddhism.