Chandra (चन्द्र / "shining" or "moon") is a Lunar Deity and is also one of the nine planets, Navagrahas (नवग्रह) in Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
- In Mythology, a Lunar Deity is a God or Goddess of the Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra), sometimes as a personification.
These Deities can have a variety of functions and traditions depending upon the culture, but they are often related.
Some form of Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra) worship can be found in most ancient religions.
- Navagrahas (नवग्रह) means "Nine Celestial Bodies" in Sanskrit (संस्कृत) and are Nine Astronomical Bodies or Nine Realms or Nine Planets in Hindu and Vedic Astrology (ज्योतिष, Jyotiṣa or Jyotisha / ज्योतिश्या, Jyotishya) as well as Mythical Deities of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
Chandra (चन्द्र) is synonymous to as Soma (सोम).
Soma (सोम) connotes the Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra) as well as a medicinal deity in post-Vedic (पोस्ट-वैदिक) Mythology (1500 - 500 BC).
In Puranic (पौराणिक) Mythology, Soma (सोम) is Lunar Deity, but sometimes also used to refer to Vishnu (विष्णु), Shiva (शिव) as Somanatha (सोमनाथाथा), Yama (यामा) and Kubera (कुबेर).
In some Indian texts, Soma (सोम) is a name of an Apsara (अप्सरस्), alternatively it is the name of any medicinal concoction, or rice-water gruel, or heaven and sky, as well as the name of certain places of pilgrimage.
Other names of Chandra (चन्द्र) include: Indu (इंदु / "bright drop"), Atrisuta (एट्रिसुता / "son of Atri"), Sachin (सचिन / "marked by hare"), Tārādhipa (तारादिपा / "Lord of stars") and Nishakara (निशाकर / "the night maker").
- Vedic (वैदिक) Mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic (वैदिक) Religion and Vedic (वैदिक) Literature, alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda (ऋग्वेद).
The central myth at the base of Vedic (वैदिक) ritual surrounds Indra (इन्द्र) who, inebriated with Soma (सोम), slays the Dragon Vritra (विट्रा), freeing the Rivers, the Cows and Dawn.
- Puranic (पुराणक) Mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the Puranas (पुराण).
- Vishnu (विष्णु) is one of the Principal Deities of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म), and the Supreme Being or Absolute Truth in its Vaishnavism (वैष्णववाद) Tradition.
Vishnu (विष्णु) is the "preserver" in the Hindu triad, Trimurti (त्रिमूर्ति) that includes Brahma (ब्रह्मा) and Shiva (शिव).
- Shiva (शिव / "the auspicious one") also known as Mahadeva (महादेवा / "the great God") is one of the Principal Deities of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
He is one of the supreme beings within Shaivism (शैव संप्रदाय), one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
- Yama (यामा) or Yamarāja (यामारजा) is a God of Death, of the South Direction, and of the Underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic (ऋग्वेदिक) Hindu Deities.
- Kubera (कुबेर) also known as Kuvera (कुवेरा), Kuber (कुबेर) or Kuberan (कुबेरन), is the Lord of Wealth and the God-King of the semi-divine Yakshas (अक्षय / a broad class of Nature-Spirits) in Hindu Mythology.
- Apsara (अप्सरस्) is a type of female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist Culture.
They figure prominently in the sculpture, dance, literature and painting of many South Asian and Southeast Asian Cultures.
- The Rigveda (ऋग्वेद) is an Ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit Hymns (वैदिक संस्कृत भजन) along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
It is one of the four sacred canonical texts (श्रुति, Śruti) of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म) known as the Vedas (वेद).
- The Vedas (वेद / "Knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in Ancient India.
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit (वैदिक संस्कृत), the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit (संस्कृत) Literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya (अपौरुषेय), which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless".
- Indra (इन्द्र) is a Vedic (वैदिक) Deity in Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म), a Guardian Deity in Buddhism (बौद्ध धर्म), and the King of the Highest Heaven called Saudharmakalpa (सौधरमकलप) in Jainism.
- Puranas (पुराण / "ancient, old") is a vast genre of Indian Literature about a wide range of topics, particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore.
- Vaishnavism (वैष्णववाद) is one of the major Hindu denominations and it considers Vishnu (विष्णु) as the Supreme Lord.
- The Trimūrti (त्रिमूर्ति / "three forms") is the Triple Deity of Supreme Divinity in Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
- Brahma (ब्रह्मा) is the Creator God in Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
He is also known as Svayambhu (स्वयम्भू / "self-born") or the creative aspect of Vishnu (विष्णु), Vāgīśa (वगिसा / "Lord of Speech"), and the creator of the four Vedas (वेद), one from each of his mouths.
Chandra (चन्द्र) is described as young and beautiful, two-armed and carrying a club and a lotus.
In Hindu Mythology, there are multiple legends surrounding Chandra (चन्द्र).
In one, Chandra (चन्द्र) met
Tara (तारा), the
wife of Brihaspati (बृहस्पति / planet
Jupiter) and abducted her.
From their union, Tara (तारा) became pregnant, giving birth to Budha (बुध / planet Mercury).
Brihaspati (बृहस्पति), being upset, declared a war but the Devas (देव) intervened and Tara (तारा) was returned to Brihaspati (बृहस्पति).
Budha's (बुध) son was Pururavas (पुरूरवस्) who established the Chandravanshi Dynasty (चंद्रवंशी राजवंश).
After Tara (तारा) returned to her husband Brihaspati (बृहस्पति),
Chandra (चन्द्र) had an emotional breakdown because he couldn't satisfy
his feelings by having infinite children with Tara (तारा) and so He (Mind) was overcomed by lust (Emotions).
He pursued Daksha's (दक्ष) 27 daughters to get married to curb his ever-growing desires for sexual union.
Among all of his 27 wives, Rohini (रोहिणी) is the most favoured.
The 26 other wives became upset (after knowing that चन्द्र, Chandra spent more time with रोहिणी, Rohini alone) and complained to Daksha (दक्ष) who placed a curse on Chandra (चन्द्र).
The curse was overcome only after Chandra (चन्द्र) devoted himself to Shiva (शिव), who partially released him from the curse.
- Tārā (तारा) or Tārakā (तारका) is the Hindu Goddess of felicity and sanguineness.
Taraka (तारका) is also the second consort of Hindu God Brihaspati (बृहस्पति), God of planet Jupiter.
According to the Puranas (पुराण), Tara (तारा) sired or mothered a child named Budha (बुध / God of planet Mercury) through Chandra (चन्द्र / सोम, Soma).
- Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति / Brihaspati) is an Indian name, and refers to different mythical figures depending on the age of the text.
In ancient Hindu Literature, Brihaspati (बृहस्पति) is a Vedic (वैदिक) era sage who counsels the Gods, while in some Medieval texts the word refers to the largest planet Jupiter.
- Budha Graha (बुध) is a Sanskrit (संस्कृत) word that connotes
the planet Mercury.
Budha (बुध), in Puranic (पौराणिक) Hindu Mythology (4rth Century), is also a Deity.
- Deva (देव / "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence") is also one of the terms for a Deity in Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
Deva (देव) is a masculine term; the feminine equivalent is Devī (देवी).
In the earliest Vedic (वैदिक) Literature, all supernatural beings are called Devas (देव) and Asuras (असुर).
In the Puranas (पुराण) and the Itihasas (इटीहासा) of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म), the Devas (देव) represent the good, and the Asuras (असुर) the bad.
In some Medieval Indian Literature, Devas (देव) are also referred to as Suras and contrasted with their equally powerful but malevolent half-brothers, referred to as the Asuras (असुर).
- Purūravas (पुरूरवस्) was the first king of the Aila Dynasty (ऐला राजवंश / Lunar Dynasty) or the Candravaṃśa (कैंद्रावमसा) / Chandravanshi Dynasty (चंद्रवंशी राजवंश) or the Somavaṃśa (सोमावमसा) that was is one of the principal houses of the Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय / "rule, authority") Varna (वर्ना / "social orders") or Warrior-Ruling caste (associated with warriorhood).
This legendary dynasty was said to be descended from moon-related deities (सोम, Soma or चन्द्र, Chandra).
- Dakṣa (दक्ष / "able, dexterous, or honest one") is one of the sons of Lord Brahma (ब्रह्मा), who, after creating the Ten Manas Putras (मानस पुत्र), created Daksa (दक्ष), Dharma (धर्म), Kamadeva (कामदेव) and Agni (अग्नि) from his right thumb, chest, heart and eyebrows respectively.
Dakṣa (दक्ष) was a great Brahmin King.
- Rohini (रोहिणी /"the red one") is a name of Aldebaran (the giant star about 65 light-years from the Sun in the Zodiac Constellation Taurus).
Also known as brāhmī (ब्राह्मी).
- Itihasa (इटीहासा / "history") consists of the Mahabharata (महाभारतम्) and the Ramayana (रामायणम्) - sometimes the Puranas (पुराण) too, are included.
- The Mahabharata (महाभारतम्, Mahābhārata) and the Ramayana (रामायणम्, Rāmāyaṇam) are the two major Sanskrit (संस्कृत) epics of Ancient India (originated: 8th and 9th Centuries BCE / dated: early Gupta period, c. 4th century CE).
- Manas Putras (मानस पुत्र / "mind-born son" or "mind-son") are the ten sons of God Brahma (ब्रह्मा), created from his mind.
These Rishis (ऋषि / Enlightened Persons) or sages were also known as Prajapati (प्रजापति / "lords of creation and protectors").
According to the Bhagavata Purana (भागवतपुराण / one of हिंदू धर्म, Hinduism's eighteen great पुराण, Puranas), their names are: Angiras (अङ्गिरस् / "sage"), Atri (अत्रि), Pulastya (पुलस्त्य), Marichi (ऋषि मरीचि / "ray of light"), Pulaha (पुलाहा), Kratu (क्रतु / "strength"), Bhrigu (ब्रिगु), Vashistha (वशिष्ठ), Daksha (दक्ष) and Narada (नारद).
- Dharmathakur (धर्मठाकुर) also called Dharma Thakur (धर्म ठाकुर), Dharmaraj (धर्मराज) or simply Dharma (धर्म) is a Hindu God, worshipped by villagers in the traditional Rarh (राधा, Rāḍha) Region in the present day, Indian state of West Bengal (पशिम बंगा, Paschim Banga) as one of their special village Gods (ग्रामदेवता, Gramadevata).
- Kamadeva (कामदेव), Kāma (काम) or Manmatha (मैनाथा) is the Hindu God of human love or desire, often portrayed along with his female counterpart, Rati (रति).
- Agni (अग्नि) is a Sanskrit (संस्कृत) word meaning "Fire", and connotes the Vedic (वैदिक) Fire God of Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म).
According to another
legend, Ganesha (गणेश) was returning home on his mount Krauncha (क्रानचा)
late on a Full Moon (पूर्णिमा) night
after a mighty feast given by Kubera (कुबेर).
On the journey back, a snake crossed their path and frightened by it, his mount ran away dislodging Ganesha (गणेश) in the process.
An overstuffed Ganesha (गणेश) fell to the ground on his stomach, vomiting out all the Modaks (मोदक) he had eaten.
On observing this, Chandra (चन्द्र) laughed at Ganesha (गणेश).
Ganesha (गणेश) lost his temper and broke off one of his tusks and flung it straight at the moon, hurting him, and cursed him so that he would never be whole again.
Therefore, it is forbidden to behold Chandra (चन्द्र) on Ganesh Chaturthi (गणेश चतुर्थी).
This legend accounts for the Moon's waxing and waning including a big crater on the moon, a dark spot, visible even from earth.
- Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati (गणपति), Vinayaka (विनायका), or by numerous other names, is one of the best-known and most worshipped Deities in the Hindu Pantheon.
Ganesha's (गणेश) elephant head makes him easy to identify.
- Modak (मोदक / Japanese: 歓喜団) is an Indian sweet popular in many parts of India.
- Ganesh Chaturthi (गणेश चतुर्थी, Gaṇēśa Chaturthī), also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi (विनायक चतुर्थी) or Vinayaka Chavithi (विनायक चैवती) is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Ganesha (गणेश).
It falls in the months of August or September of the Gregorian Calendar.
Chandra (चन्द्र), who is also known as Soma (सोम) and Indu (इंदु), is the basis of Somvaar (सोमवर / which is हिंदी, Hindi) and Induvaasaram (इंदुवासाराम / which is Sanskrit) for Monday in the Hindu Calendar.
The word "Monday" in the Greco-Roman and other Indo-European Calendars is also dedicated to Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra).
The Tibetan Calendar is a Lunisolar Calendar.
The Tibetan Year is composed of either 12 or 13 Lunar Months, each beginning and ending with a New Moon (अमावस्या, Amāvásyā).
A thirteenth month is added every two or three years, so that an average Tibetan Year is equal to the Solar Year.
The months have no names, but are referred to by their numbers except the fourth month which is called the Saka Dawa (शक देवा), celebrating the Birth and Enlightenment of Buddha (बुद्ध).
According to almanacs the year starts with the third (Hor, होर) month.
There were many different traditions in Tibet to fix the beginning of the year.
The dates of Mongolian
Calendar are all the same with it.
In Lunar Calendars, a Lunar Month (चन्द्रमास) is the time between two successive syzygies (युग्मक, yugmaks / अमावस्या, Amāvásyās, New Moons or पूर्णिमा, Purnimas, Full Moons).
The precise definition varies, especially for the beginning of the month.
Dawa (चन्द्र, Chandra /"Moon") is common personal name for people born on Monday (सोमवर, Somvaar or इंदुवासाराम, Induvaasaram).
The New Moon (अमावस्या, Amāvásyā)
is significant in the Hindu Calendar.
Hindus generally wait for the New Moon (अमावस्या, Amāvásyā) to begin projects, as the waxing period of the Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra) is considered to be favourable for new work.
fifteen Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra) dates for each
of the waxing and waning periods.
These fifteen dates divided evenly into five categories: Nanda (नंदा), Bhadra' (भद्र'), Jaya (जया), Rikta (रिक्टा), and Purna (पूर्ण), which are cycled through in that order.
- Nanda (नंदा) dates are considered to be favourable for auspicious works.
- Bhadra' (भद्र') dates for works related with community, social, family and friends.
- Jaya (जया) dates for dealing with conflict.
- Rikta (रिक्टा) dates are considered beneficial only for works related to cruelty.
- Purna (पूर्ण) dates are considered to be favourable for all work.
The Hindu epic Mahabharatha (महाभारतम्, Mahābhārata) states that the Kurukshetra War (कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध / 5561 - c. 950 BCE) started this day, which was also a Tuesday (मंगलावर, Mangalvaar), the day of the week named after Mars (मङ्गल, Mangala).
An Amāvásyā (अमावस्या, New Moon) falling on Mondays (सोमवर, Somvaar or इंदुवासाराम, Induvaasaram) has a special significance.
It is believed that a fast on this particular Amāvásyā (अमावस्या, New Moon) would ward off widow-hood in women and ensure bearing of progeny.
It is also believed that all desires could be fulfilled if one fasts on this Amāvásyā (अमावस्या, New Moon).
Every month, the Amāvāsyā (अमावस्या, New Moon) day is considered auspicious for the worship of forefathers and poojas (पूजा / prayer rituals performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more Deities) are made.
Religious people are not supposed to travel or work, and instead concentrate on the rites of Amāvāsyās (अमावस्या, New Moons), typically at home in the afternoon.
On Amāvāsyās (अमावस्या, New Moons), Śrāddha or Shraaddha (श्राद्ध / the ritual that one performs to pay homage to one's "ancestors" - पितृ, Pitṛs, "the fathers") is done to forefathers by Brahmins (ब्राह्मण) whose fathers have died.
In modern times, a short 20-minute version of the ceremony is done - offering black sesame and water as oblation to departed souls.
This oblation is offered to father, grandfather, great-grandfather, mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother.
If one of these persons are still alive, their name is skipped and the corresponding earlier generation person is offered oblation.
Then a final oblation is offered to those anonymous souls which died and have nobody in their lineage offering oblation.
These oblations are believed to give birth to good children without mental or physical challenges.
The dark fortnight of Aswayuja (अश्विन / September-October) is known as the Pitru Paksha (पितृ पक्ष / महालया, Mahalaya / "fortnight of the ancestors"), which is especially sacred for offering oblations to departed ancestors.
The last day of this period, the Dark Moon Day, called Mahalaya Amavasya (महालया अमावस्या), is considered the most important day in the year for performing obsequies and rites.
The Manes (the represent souls of deceased loved ones) return to their abode on the evening of Deepavali (दीवाली,Diwali /the festival of Lights).
Due to the grace of the Yama (यामा), it has been ordained that offerings made during this period benefit all the departed souls, whether they are connected to you or not.
- Brahmin (ब्राह्मण) is a varna (वर्ना / "class") in Hinduism, specialising as priests, teachers (आचार्य, acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The traditional occupation of Brahmins (ब्राह्मण) was that of priesthood at the Hindu temples or at socio-religious ceremonies and rite of passage rituals such as solemnizing a wedding with hymns and prayers.
Theoretically, the Brahmins (ब्राह्मण) were the highest ranking of the four social classes.
In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins (ब्राह्मण) were agriculturalists, warriors, traders and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent.
The Full Moon (पूर्णिमा, Purnima) is also significant in the Hindu Calendar.
The day of Purnima (पूर्णिमा, Full Moon) is the day (तिथि Tithi / "lunar day") in each month when the Full Moon (पूर्णिमा, Purnima) occurs, and marks the division in each month between the two lunar fortnights (a unit of time equal to 14 days), and the Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra) are aligned exactly in a straight line, called a syzygy (युग्मक, yugmak) of the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
Full moon (पूर्णिमा, Purnima) is considered the third of the four primary phases of the Moon (चन्द्र, Chandra); the other three phases are New Moon (अमावस्या, Amāvásyā), First Quarter Moon (शुक्ल पक्ष, Śhukla Paksha or गौरा पक्ष, Gaura Paksha / Waxing Moon), and Third Quarter Moon (कृष्ण पक्ष, Krishna Paksha or वध्या पक्ष, Vadhya Paksha / Waning Moon).
The Full Moon (पूर्णिमा, Purnima) shows 100% illumination, causes high tides (the rise and fall of sea levels), and can concur with Lunar Eclipses (चंद्रगहण, Chandragahan).
Many festivals occur on Purnima (पूर्णिमा, Full Moon):
- Kartik Poornima (कार्तिक पूर्णिमा) or Tripura Purnima (त्रिपुरा पूर्णिमा)
- Shravan Poornima (रक्षाबन्धन, Raksha Bandhan)
- Vat Purnima (वट पूर्णिमा / It is the chosen day for worshipping यामा, Yama Deva)
- Guru Purnima (व्यास, Vyasa Purnima / devotees offer पूजा, puja - worship to their गुरु, Guru)
- Sharad Purnima or Kojagiri purnima (शरद पूर्णिमा / the Autumn Harvest Festival)
- Poornima (पूर्णिमा / the day of birth, enlightenment and passing away of गौतम बुद्ध, Gautama Buddha)
- Holi (होली or फाल्गुण पूर्णिमा, Phalgun Purnima, / the Spring Festival of Colours)
- Dattātreya Jayanti (दत्तात्रेय जयंती)
- Hanuman Jayanti (हनुमान् जयंती / religious festival that celebrates the birth of Lord Sri Hanuman)
- Shakambhari Purnima (पौष पूर्णिमा)
- Madhu Purnima (मधु पूर्णिमा / "honey full-moon" / the day of worshiping इन्द्र, Indra for children and well-being)
- Satyanarayan Puja (सत्यनारायण पूजा / observed on all Full Moon days)
- Hanuman (हनुमान्) is an ardent devotee of Rama (राम), the major Deity of Hinduism, who is the seventh avatar of the God Vishnu (विष्णु).