Zoroastrians (زرادشتية, Zoroastrianism) offer Sandalwood (خشب الصندل / चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) twigs to the Afarganyu (أفارجانيو), the urn in which the fire is kept at the Fire Temple (أجياري, Agiyari / دار ه المزيد, Dar-e Mehr), to keep the fire burning during religious ceremonies.
Fire has been a sacred symbol in the Zoroastrian Religion (زرادشتية, Zoroastrianism) since ancient times and it is considered very important to keep the fires in the temples constantly burning.
Also, the Sandalwood (خشب الصندل / चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) has been accepted by the Yasna (ياسنا) and Yashts (ياشتس), the Zoroastrianism's (زرادشتية) principal acts of worship, as an appropriate fuel for the fire.
The Sandalwood (خشب الصندل / चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is offered to all of the Three Grades of Fire (أتاش دادغاه, Atash Dadgah / أتاش أداران, Atash Adaran / أتاش بهرام, Atash Behram) in the Fire Temple (أجياري, Agiyari / دار ه المزيد, Dar-e Mehr).
In Hinduism (हिंदू धर्म) and Ayurveda (आयुर्वेदः / a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian Subcontinent / a type of alternative medicine), Sandalwood (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is thought to bring one closer to the Divine.
Thus, it is one of the most used holy elements in Hindu (हिंदू) and Vedic (वैदिक) societies.
The Sandalwood (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is used for worshipping the God Shiva (शिव).
It is believed that Goddess Lakshmi (लक्ष्मी) lives in the Sandalwood tree (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album).
The wood of the Sandalwood tree (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is made into a paste using sandalwood powder, which is integral to rituals and ceremonies, to make religious utensils, to decorate the icons of the deities, and to calm the mind during meditation and prayer.
It is also distributed to devotees, who apply it to their foreheads or necks and chests.
Preparation of the paste is a duty fit only for the pure, so is entrusted only to priests when used in temples and during ceremonies.
The paste is prepared by grinding wood by hand with granite slabs shaped for this purpose.
With the gradual addition of water, a thick paste forms (called കളഭം, kalabham in Malayalam language and ಗಂಧ, gandha in Kannada) and is mixed with saffron (भगवा, bhagava) or other such pigments to make chandanam (चन्दनम).
Chandanam (चन्दनम), further mixed with herbs, perfumes, pigments, and some other compounds, results in javadhu (जावाधू).
Kalabham (കളഭം), chandanam (चन्दनम), and javadhu (जावाधू) are dried and used as kalabham powder (कालाभम पाउडर), chandanam powder (चन्दनम पाउडर), and javadhu powder (जावाधू पाउडर), respectively.
Chandanam powder (चन्दनम पाउडर) is very popular in India and is also used in Nepal.
In Tirupati after religious tonsure, Sandalwood paste (चंदन चिपकाएँ) is applied to protect the skin.
Sandalwood (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) use is integral part of daily practices of Jainism (जैन धर्म / a Transtheism Religion in India).
- The term "Transtheism" refers to a system of religious philosophy which is neither Theistic nor Atheistic, but is beyond them.
Sandalwood paste (चंदन चिपकाएँ) mixed with saffron (भगवा, bhagava) is used to worship Tirthankar (तीर्थंकर / a Saviour and Spiritual Teacher of the Dharma) Jain Deities.
Sandalwood powder (चंदन पाउडर) is showered as blessings by Jain monks and nuns (Sadhusand / साधुनन्द, Sadhvis / साध्वी) to their disciples and followers.
Sandalwood garlands (चंदन माला) are used to dress the body during Jain cremation ceremonies.
During the festival of Mahamastakabhisheka (महामस्तकाभिषेकः) that is held once in every 12 years, the statue of Gommateshwara (गोमटेश्वरा / ಗೊಮ್ಮಟೇಶ್ವರ) is then bathed and anointed with libations such as milk (दूध), sugarcane juice (गन्ना रस), and saffron paste (भगवा चिपकाएँ), and sprinkled with powders of Sandalwood (चंदन पाउडर), Turmeric (हल्दी, Haldi / Curcuma longa), and Vermilion (वर्मिलियन / a scarlet pigment).
In Buddhism (बौद्ध धर्म), Sandalwood (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is mentioned in various Suttas (sacred texts / सूत्र पिटक) of the Pāli Canon (a collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist Tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language).
In some Buddhist Traditions, Sandalwood (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is considered to be of the Padma (पद्म / Lotus) group and attributed to Amitabha Buddha (अमिताभ बुद्ध).
Sandalwood scent (चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is believed by some to transform one`s desires and maintain a person`s alertness while in meditation.
It is also one of the most popular scents used when offering incense (धूप) θυμιάματα to the Buddha (बुद्ध) and the Guru (गुरु).
In Sufism (الْتَّصَوُّف), Sandalwood paste (चंदन चिपकाएँ) is applied on the Sufi's (صُوفِيّ) grave by the disciples as a mark of devotion.
It is practiced particularly among the Indian Subcontinent disciples.
- Sufism (الْتَّصَوُّف / Taṣawwuf), is Mysticism in Islam, which began very early in Islamic History.
It represents the main manifestation of the Mystical Practice in Islam.
Practitioners of Sufism have been referred to as "Sufis" (صُوفِيّ).
In the Tamil (तमिल / தமிழ்) culture irrespective of religious identity, Sandalwood paste (चंदन चिपकाएँ) or powder (चंदन पाउडर) is applied to the graves of Sufis (صُوفِيّ) as a mark of devotion and respect.
Sandalwood (檀香 / चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album), along with Agarwood (阿加伍德 / आगरवुड / 阿萊斯伍德, Aloeswood / 加魯伍德, Gharuwood), is the most commonly used incense material (香) by the Chinese and Japanese in worship and various ceremonies.
However, some sects of Taoists (道家), following the Ming Dynasty Taoist Manual, do not use Sandalwood incense (檀香 / चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album), as well as Frankincense (乳香) of Benzoin resin (苯甲酸樹脂 / a balsamic resin obtained from the bark of several species of trees in the genus Styrax), foreign produced.
Instead either they use Agarwood (阿加伍德 / आगरवुड / 阿萊斯伍德, Aloeswood / 加魯伍德, Gharuwood), or better still Acronychia pedunculata (阿克羅尼基亞·佩蒙庫拉塔 / a large shrub or small tree of the lower hill forests of tropical Asia), in worship.
In Korean Shamanism (무속), Sandalwood (샌들 우드 / चंदन, Chandan / Santalum Album) is considered the Tree of Life (생명의 나무).